Tag Archive for: Glyphosate

Review 552: Glyphosate And Other Pesticides, Sustainable Alternatives

Welcome to Review 552, which covers a lot of news and new research on glyphosate-based herbicides such as Roundup, as well as other GMO-related pesticides, and the sustainable alternatives to poisoning ourselves and our environment. Topics include Roundup cancer lawsuits, the European Food Safety Authority’s perverse decision to greenlight glyphosate’s re-approval in the EU, the concerns of health scientists about exposure to glyphosate and other pesticides, new studies on glyphosate and its commercial formulations, damage to ecosystems from the use of GMO-related pesticides, actions of citizens resisting pesticide spraying in their localities, and innovations that provide effective non-toxic alternatives to weedkilling chemicals.

Bayer: Weedkiller maker to take $2.8bn hit as sales fall

Bayer says it expects to take a €2.5bn ($2.8bn; £2.2bn) hit from a slower demand for its glyphosate-based products, including the controversial weedkiller Roundup. The announcement came as the company lowered its outlook for the year as it braces for a persistent fall in demand and lower prices.


Glyphosate: Cancer and Other Health Concerns

Glyphosate, a synthetic herbicide patented in 1974 by the Monsanto Company and now manufactured and sold by many companies in hundreds of products, has been associated with cancer and many other health concerns discussed in this fact sheet. Glyphosate is best known as the active ingredient in Roundup-branded herbicides, and the herbicide used with “Roundup Ready” genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

Herbicide tolerance is the most prevalent GMO trait engineered into food crops, with some 90% of corn and 94% of soybeans in the U.S. genetically engineered to tolerate herbicides, according to USDA data. A 2017 study found that Americans’ exposure to glyphosate grew by about 500 percent since Roundup Ready GMO crops were introduced in the U.S in 1996.

Why is Bayer taking glyphosate off the U.S. consumer market?

In July 2021, Monsanto owner Bayer AG said it would remove glyphosate-based herbicides from the U.S. consumer market by 2023 due to litigation. More than 100,000 people are suing Bayer alleging they developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma from exposure to the company’s glyphosate herbicides, such as Roundup. We are posting documents released via discovery on our Monsanto Papers page.

Glyphosate will still be used in large quantities in agriculture in the U.S. Reformulated versions of Roundup brand herbicides without glyphosate will also remain on the market, but may contain other chemicals of concern. For example, one of the active ingredients in “Roundup for Lawns” is dicamba, a chemical that can damage non-target plants and crops.

How much glyphosate is used around the world?

According to a February 2016 study, glyphosate is the most widely used agricultural chemical: “In the U.S., no pesticide has come remotely close to such intensive and widespread use.” Findings include:

  • Americans applied 1.8 million tons of glyphosate (or 1.6 billion kilograms) from its introduction in 1974 to 2014.
  • Worldwide, 9.5 million tons (or 8.6 billion kilograms) of the chemical has been sprayed on fields —enough to spray nearly half a pound of Roundup on every cultivated acre of land in the world.
  • Glyphosate use has risen almost 15-fold since Roundup Ready GMO crops (genetically engineered to tolerate glyphosate) were introduced in the mid 1990s.

In the U.S., approximately 281 million pounds of glyphosate were applied to 298 million acres annually, on average, from 2012 to 2016, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. The most glyphosate was applied to soybean (117.4 million pounds annually), corn (94.9 million pounds annually), and cotton (20 million pounds annually). Many citrus fruits, including grapefruit, oranges and lemons, and field crops such as soybeans, corn and cotton have high percentages of their acres treated with glyphosate.

What do scientists and health care providers say about glyphosate?

Many scientists, health care professionals and public interest groups have raised concern about the health impacts of glyphosate. Here are some key statements:

Monsanto owner Bayer AG maintains that glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides are safe when used as directed and do not cause cancer. “Glyphosate is one of the most studied herbicides in the world – and, like all crop protection products, it is subject to rigorous testing and oversight by regulatory authorities,” Bayer states on its website. “There is an extensive body of research on glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides… that confirm that glyphosate and our glyphosate-based formulated products can be used safely and do not cause cancer.”

Internal Monsanto documents, investigative journalism and independent research have established that Monsanto used many tactics over decades to manipulate the scientific record on glyphosate and that regulatory agencies relied on poorly conducted studies and insufficient data.

How much glyphosate is in our bodies?

More than 80% of urine samples drawn from children and adults in a U.S. health study contained glyphosate, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Out of 2,310 urine samples taken from Americans intended to be representative of the population, CDC found that 1,885 contained detectable levels of glyphosate. Scientists described this finding as “disturbing” and “concerning.”

2017 study in JAMA found that Americans’ exposure to glyphosate increased approximately 500 percent since Roundup Ready GMO crops were introduced in 1996.

While it is clear that most Americans are being exposed to glyphosate, the literature on glyphosate exposure levels, especially in children, remains limited, according to a 2020 paper in Environmental Health. “Without more data collected in a standardized way, parsing out the potential relationship between glyphosate exposure and disease will not be possible,” the researchers concluded.

Why are corporate studies a problem?

Regulators in Europe and the United States, Canada and elsewhere have repeatedly affirmed the corporate assertions of glyphosate safety. In making determinations about safety, these regulators have relied in part on tests that are conducted by or for the companies that have not been published or peer reviewed.

The corporate studies have long been kept secret, even by regulators. But in Europe, litigation by a group of European Parliament lawmakers led to the release of dozens of such studies. More than 50 of those corporate studies were analyzed in 2021 by independent scientists from the Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine at the Medical University of Vienna, Armen Nersesyan and Siegfried Knasmueller.

Their goal was to determine if the industry studies comply with current international guidelines for chemical testing. The researchers concluded that the bulk of the industry studies were outdated and did not meet current guidelines. An array of shortcomings and flaws were found in the studies, rendering most of them unreliable. Of the 53 studies submitted to regulators by the companies, only two were acceptable under current internationally recognized scientific standards, Knasmueller said.

Glyphosate and cancer: What do scientific and regulatory agencies say?

The scientific literature and regulatory conclusions regarding cancer links to glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides show a mix of findings, making the safety of the herbicide a hotly debated subject.

In 2015, the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified glyphosate as “probably carcinogenic to humans” after reviewing years of published and peer-reviewed scientific studies. The team of international scientists found there was a particular association between glyphosate and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

U.S. agencies: At the time of the IARC classification, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was conducting a registration review. The EPA’s Cancer Assessment Review Committee (CARC) issued a report in 2016 concluding that glyphosate was “not likely to be carcinogenic to humans” at doses relevant to human health. In December 2016, the EPA convened a Scientific Advisory Panel to review the report; members were divided in their assessment of EPA’s work, with some finding the EPA erred in how it evaluated certain research. Additionally, the EPA’s Office of Research and Development determined that EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs had not followed proper protocols in its evaluation of glyphosate, and said the evidence could be deemed to support a “likely” carcinogenic or “suggestive” evidence of carcinogenicity classification. Nevertheless the EPA issued a draft report on glyphosate in December 2017 continuing to hold that the chemical is not likely to be carcinogenic. In April 2019, the EPA reaffirmed its position that glyphosate poses no risk to public health. But earlier that same month, the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) reported links between glyphosate and cancer: “numerous studies reported risk ratios greater than one for associations between glyphosate exposure and risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma or multiple myeloma,” the report said.

The EPA issued an Interim Registration Review Decision in January 2020 with updated information about its position on glyphosate, continuing to hold the position that glyphosate is unlikely to cause cancer. In June 2022, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals rejected EPA’s decision. EPA withdrew its interim decision in September 2022 and the agency will start over in its review.

European Union: The European Food Safety Authority and the European Chemicals Agency have said glyphosate is not likely to be carcinogenic to humans. A March 2017 report by environmental and consumer groups argued that regulators relied improperly on research that was directed and manipulated by the chemical industry. A 2019 study found that Germany’s Federal Institute for Risk Assessment report on glyphosate, which found no cancer risk, included sections of text that had been plagiarized from Monsanto studies. In February 2020, reports surfaced that 24 scientific studies submitted to the German regulators to prove the safety of glyphosate came from a large German laboratory that has been accused of fraud and other wrongdoing.

In June 2021, the European Union’s (EU) Assessment Group on Glyphosate (AGG) issued an 11,000-page draft report concluding that glyphosate is safe when used as directed and does not cause cancer. The finding is based in part on a dossier of roughly 1,500 studies submitted to European regulators by the “Glyphosate Renewal Group (GRG),” a collection of companies that includes Monsanto owner Bayer AG. The companies are seeking the renewal of the EU authorization of glyphosate. Current authorization in Europe expires in 2023.

WHO/FAO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues determined in 2016 that glyphosate was unlikely to pose a carcinogenic risk to humans from exposure through the diet, but this finding was tarnished by conflict of interest concerns after it came to light that the chair and co-chair of the group also held leadership positions with the International Life Sciences Institute, a group funded in part by Monsanto and one of its lobbying organizations.

California OEHHA: In March 2017, the California Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment confirmed it would add glyphosate to California’s Proposition 65 list of chemicals known to cause cancer. Monsanto sued to block the action but the case was dismissed. In a separate case, the court found that California could not require cancer warnings for products containing glyphosate. On June 12, 2018, a U.S. District Court denied the California Attorney General’s request for the court to reconsider the decision. The court found that California could only require commercial speech that disclosed “purely factual and uncontroversial information,” and the science surrounding glyphosate carcinogenicity was not proven.

Agricultural Health Study: A long-running U.S. government-backed prospective cohort study of farm families in Iowa and North Carolina has not found any connections between glyphosate use and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but the researchers reported that “among applicators in the highest exposure quartile, there was an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared with never users…” The most recent published update to the study was made public in late 2017.

What health problems are linked to glyphosate exposure?


July 2023 study in Chemosphere: Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, conducted a systematic review of mechanistic studies on glyphosate and glyphosate-based formulations to evaluate them for the 10 key characteristics of cancer hazard identification. Data analysis revealed “strong evidence” for five of the key characteristics of carcinogenicity. An in-depth analyses of genotoxicity and endocrine disruption revealed “strong and consistent positive findings.” The researchers wrote, “Our findings strengthen the mechanistic evidence that glyphosate is aprobablehuman carcinogen and provide biological plausibility for previously reported cancer associations in humans, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma.”

March 2023 Leukemia and Lymphoma journal: Pooled study of three case-control studies found statistically significant increased risk and confirmed an association between Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL), including sub type hairy cell leukemia, and exposure to certain herbicides including glyphosate.

A February 2020 paper in Environmental Health presents a comprehensive review of chronic exposure animal carcinogenicity studies of glyphosate. It reports toxicologically plausible pathways for why glyphosate may cause various cancers in rodents.

In April 2019, the U.S.Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry issued its draft toxicological profile for glyphosate, reporting an increased cancer risk from glyphosate exposures. Emails released via court proceedings show officials at EPA and Monsanto tried to hinder the ATSDR report. (The ATSDR profile is now final, and raises concerns about cancer.)

March 2019 study published in the International Journal of Epidemiology analyzed data from more than 30,000 farmers and agricultural workers from studies done in France, Norway and the U.S., and reported links between glyphosate and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

February 2019 meta analysis in Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research reports a “compelling link” between glyphosate-based herbicides and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Three of the study authors were members of the EPA’s scientific advisory panel on glyphosate who have stated publicly that the EPA failed to follow proper scientific practices in its glyphosate assessment.

A January 2019 analysis in Environmental Sciences Europe argues that the U.S. EPA’s classification of glyphosate disregarded substantial scientific evidence of genotoxicity the negative impact on a cell’s genetic material) associated with weed killing products such as Roundup.

For an analysis released in July 2021, researchers from the University of Vienna analyzed 53 glyphosate studies submitted to regulators by pesticide companies found that most of the studies do not comply with modern international standards for scientific rigor, and lack the types of tests most able to detect cancer risks. The same researchers reported in November 2021 that only two of the 11 studies Monsanto submitted to EU regulators were deemed “reliable.”

In June 2022, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals rejected EPA’s decision that glyphosate likely poses no “unreasonable risk” to the environment and human health. In September 2022 the U.S. EPA withdrew its interim decision on glyphosate.

Endocrine disruption, fertility and reproductive concerns

July 2023 study in Environmental Pollution investigated the potential effects of low levels of glyphosate exposure from weaning to adult life in male Wistar rats on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis function. Various changes suggest that glyphosate “may affect several steps of HPT axis regulation at the transcriptional level in an age-dependent manner and alter the morphometric parameters of thethyroid glandand TH synthesis, with potential repercussions in the TH-target organs.”

November 2022 paper in the Review of Economic Studies discusses glyphosate exposure and birth outcomes of populations surrounding GMO soy growing regions in Brazil. “We document a significant deterioration in birth outcomes for populations downstream from locations that are likely to have increased relatively more the use of glyphosate … average increase in glyphosate use in the sample during the 2000-2010 period led to an increase of 5% of the average in the infant mortality rate.”

October 2022 study in Environmental Health found glyphosate in 99% of pregnant women in a Midwestern cohort. Higher maternal levels in the first trimester were associated with lower birth weight, higher NICU admission risk. See also Indiana University School of Medicine news release.

In a March 2021 paper in Frontiers in Endocrinology, researchers that glyphosate is detected in the urine of residents of rural and urban environments and there is a correlation between “farmers’ exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides and altered thyroid hormone levels or incidence of thyroid pathologies.”

October 2020 paper in Chemosphere journal is the first comprehensive review consolidating the mechanistic evidence on glyphosate as an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC). The paper concludes that the world’s most widely used herbicide meets at least eight of the 10 key characteristics of EDCs, as proposed in an expert consensus statement published in 2020. See also article by USRTK.

July 2020 paper published in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Are glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides endocrine disruptors that alter female fertility?” summarizes the endocrine-disrupting effects of exposure to glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides at low or “environmentally relevant” doses in the female reproductive tissues. Data suggesting that, at low doses, glyphosate-based herbicides may have adverse effects on the female reproductive tract fertility are discussed.

June 2020 paper in Veterinary and Animal Science concludes that some ingredients of glyphosate-based herbicides appear to act as reproductive toxicants, having a wide range of effects on both the male and female reproductive systems, including endocrine disruption, tissue damage and dysfunction of gametogenesis.

June 2020 paper in Environmental Pollution finds that neonatal exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides decreased cell proliferation and altered the expression of molecules that control proliferation and development in the uterus, potentially affecting the female reproductive health of sheep.

July 2020 study in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology found indications that “chronic low-level exposure to glyphosate alters the ovarian proteome and may ultimately impact ovarian function.”

September 2020 study in Food and Chemical Toxicology reports that perinatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide or glyphosate “disrupted critical hormonal and uterine molecular targets during the receptive state, possibly associated with the implantation failures.”

A 2018 ecological and population study conducted in Argentina found high concentrations of glyphosate in the soil and dust in agricultural areas that also reported higher rates of spontaneous abortion and congenital abnormalities in children, suggesting a link between environmental exposure to glyphosate and reproductive problems. No other relevant sources of pollution were identified.

A 2018 rat study by Argentinian researchers linked low-level perinatal glyphosate exposures to impaired female reproductive performance and congenital anomalies in the next generation of offspring.

A birth cohort study in Indiana published in 2017 – the first study of glyphosate exposure in US pregnant women using urine specimens as a direct measure of exposure – found detectable levels of glyphosate in more than 90% of the pregnant women tested and found the levels were significantly correlated with shortened pregnancy lengths.

2011 study in Reproductive Toxicology reported that glyphosate impairs male offspring reproductive development by disrupting gonadotropin expression.

2009 study in Toxicology found that glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell lines.

Liver disease

A 2023 prospective cohort study using data from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) reports a strong association between glyphosate and AMPA levels in the urine of 4-year-old and 14-year-old Hispanic children and markers of damage in the liver indicative of future non-alcoholicfatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome. See also reporting in Inside Climate News.

A 2019 study based on urinary analysis for glyphosate reported that glyphosate excretion is significantly higher in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) who are considered to be at a higher risk of fibrosis progression and development to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

A 2017 study associated chronic, very low-level glyphosate exposures to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats. According to the researchers, the results “imply that chronic consumption of extremely low levels of a GBH formulation (Roundup), at admissible glyphosate-equivalent concentrations, are associated with marked alterations of the liver proteome and metabolome,” the biomarkers for NAFLD

Kidney disease

The American Association for the Advancement of Science awarded two Sri Lankan scientists, Drs. Channa Jayasumana and Sarath Gunatilake, the 2019 Award for Scientific Freedom and Responsibility for their work to “investigate a possible connection between glyphosate and chronic kidney disease under challenging circumstances.” The scientists reported that glyphosate plays a key role in transporting heavy metals to the kidneys of those drinking contaminated water, leading to high rates of chronic kidney disease in farming communities. See papers in SpringerPlus (2015), BMC Nephrology (2015), Environmental Health (2015), International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2014).

The AAAS award to the scientists was suspended amidst a fierce opposition campaign by pesticide industry allies to undermine the work of the scientists. After a review, the AAAS reinstated the award.

Microbiome disruption

November 2020 paper in the Journal of Hazardous Materials reports that approximately 54 percent of species in the core of the human gut microbiome are “potentially sensitive” to glyphosate. With a “large proportion” of bacteria in the gut microbiome susceptible to glyphosate, the intake of glyphosate “may severely affect the composition of the human gut microbiome,” the authors said in their paper. See also reporting by USRTK.

A 2020 literature review of glyphosate’s effects on the gut microbiome concludes that, “glyphosate residues on food could cause dysbiosis, given that opportunistic pathogens are more resistant to glyphosate compared to commensal bacteria.” The paper continues, “Glyphosate may be a critical environmental trigger in the etiology of several disease states associated with dysbiosis, including celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Glyphosate exposure may also have consequences for mental health, including anxiety and depression, through alterations in the gut microbiome.”

A 2018 rat study conducted by the Ramazzini Institute reported that low-dose exposures to Roundup at levels considered safe significantly altered the gut microbiota in some of the rat pups.

Another 2018 study reported that higher levels of glyphosate administered to mice disrupted the gut microbiota and caused anxiety and depression-like behaviors.


A large nationwide study published in the journal NeuroToxicology (December 2021) reports that “several neurotoxic pesticide exposures estimated using residential location were associated with statistically significant increased risk of ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). These include the herbicides 2, 4-D and glyphosate, and the insecticides carbaryl and chlorpyrifos.” ALS is a progressive nervous system disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, causing loss of muscle control.


A July 2023 study in Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Tawainese researchers analyzed data from the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) of 1466 adults to explore the relationship between glyphosate exposure and erythrocyte profiles. The study found a “significant negative association between urinary glyphosate levels and hemoglobin and hematocrit … and provides “preliminary evidence of a plausible association between glyphosate exposure and anemia in a subset of the adult population in the United States.”

What are the environmental impacts of glyphosate?

Harm to bees and monarch butterflies

A 2023 study reports that glyphosate impairs learning in bumblebees. See news coverage in Phys.org.

A 2018 study reported that glyphosate damaged the beneficial gut bacteria in honeybees and made them more prone to deadly infections.

Research from China suggests that honeybee larvae grew more slowly and died more often when exposed to glyphosate.

A 2015 study that found field-levels of exposure impaired the cognitive capacities of honeybees.

Research from 2017 correlated glyphosate use with reduced populations of monarch butterflies, possibly due to reductions in milkweed, the main food source for monarch butterflies.

Why are people suing Bayer over glyphosate?

More than 100,000 people have filed suit against Monsanto Company (now Bayer) alleging that exposure to Roundup herbicide caused them or their loved ones to develop non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and that Monsanto covered up the risks. As part of the discovery process, Monsanto has had to turn over millions of pages of internal records. See our Monsanto Papers page for documents released during the trials. The first three trials ended in large awards to plaintiffs for liability and damages, with juries ruling thatMonsanto’s weed killer was a substantial contributing factor in causing them to develop NHL. Bayer is appealing the rulings. The U.S. Supreme Court has so far upheld the rulings against Bayer.

Monsanto influence over research

In March 2017, the federal court judge unsealed some internal Monsanto documents that raised new questions about Monsanto’s influence on the EPA process and about the research regulators rely on. The documents suggest that Monsanto’s long-standing claims about the safety of glyphosate and Roundup do not necessarily rely on sound science as the company asserts, but on efforts to manipulate the science.

More information about scientific interference

Why is desiccation of wheat and other crops a problem?

Some farmers use glyphosate on non-GMO crops such as wheat, barley, oats, and lentils to dry down the crop ahead of harvest in order to accelerate the harvest. This practice, known as desiccation, may be a significant source of dietary exposure to glyphosate.

How much glyphosate is in our food?

Despite having annual pesticide residue testing programs for more than 30 years, the USDA U.S. FDA mostly skipped testing food for glyphosate until after criticism from the Government Accountability Office in 2014. The USDA said it would start testing but then dropped the plan in 2017. Internal government documents obtained by U.S. Right to Know show USDA had planned to start testing over 300 samples of corn syrup for glyphosate in April 2017; but the agency killed the project before it started. FDA began a limited testing program in 2016, but the effort was fraught with controversy and internal difficulties and the program was suspended in September 2016. The FDA did later resume limited testing.

One FDA chemist found alarming levels of glyphosate in many samples of U.S. honey, levels that were technically illegal because there have been no allowable levels established for honey by the EPA. Here is a recap of news about glyphosate found in food:

What mixtures of glyphosate and other pesticides are in our food?

USDA data from 2016 shows detectable pesticide levels in 85% of more than 10,000 foods sampled, everything from mushrooms to grapes to green beans. The government says there are little to no health risks, but some scientists say there is little to no data to back up that claim. See Chemicals on our food: When ‘safe’ may not really be safe.

In 2020, a group of FDA scientists published a research paper examining pesticide residue data collected from 2009-2017. The scientists said: “In this study, results for over 56,000 human food samples collected and analyzed under the FDA pesticide residue monitoring program between fiscal years (FY) 2009 to 2017 were reviewed to identify trends not apparent in annual reports. The overwhelming majority of these samples, 98.0% of domestic and 90.9% of import human foods, were compliant with federal standards. Although herbicides may be more widely used, the 10 most frequently detected residues were insecticides and fungicides. On a yearly basis, the violation rate for imported samples is 3-5 times higher than the rate for domestic samples. The import violation rate increased over time, as did the number of residues detected. Targeted sampling of foods with higher commodity-specific violation rates appears to be a major contributor to the increased violation rate. Mismatches between US tolerances and international MRLs can lead to violations; this was especially marked for rice. Overall, the majority of violations are due to residues of pesticides not authorized for use in the US (lack of tolerances). While DDT continues to persist in the environment and was found in 2.2% of domestic samples and 0.6% of imported samples, 42.3% of DDT-positive samples were below the limit of quantitation. The trends and analyses identified in this paper may help FDA plan future sampling and continue to protect the food supply.”

Monsanto owner Bayer AG maintains that residues of glyphosate in food are not harmful at levels approved by the EPA. A 2021 paper written by longtime Bayer (former Monsanto) scientist John Vicini and published in Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety states that “dietary exposures to glyphosate are within established safe limits.”


De la defensa del maíz a la salvación del planeta

En la vida, hay eventos decisivos que en cuanto pasa el tiempo se convierten en parteaguas imposibles de olvidar. Sucesos paradigmáticos que constituyen saltos cualitativos, resultado de la progresiva acumulación de cantidades. El ejemplo universal es el salto del agua que expuesta a la acción del fuego va aumentando grado por grado, pero que al pasar del 99 al 100 se convierte en éter: pasa de líquida a gaseosa. Esto acaba de ocurrir con el acto de celebración de los 10 años por los que un colectivo de 52 ciudadanos, más 22 organizaciones campesinas y civiles logramos detener la siembra del maíz transgénico y su pareja el herbicida glifosato promovidos por cuatro poderosos corporativos agroalimentarios (PHI, Dow, Syngenta y la actual Bayer-Monsanto).

Esta medida, única en el mundo, se logró por la vía legal mediante una acción precautoria que ha detenido las solicitudes de permiso para sembrar maíces transgénicos en México, y que ha sido impugnada decenas de veces (sin éxito) por las corporaciones.


Regenerative Research: Glyphosate

What is glyphosate?

Glyphosate is a popular herbicide used by farmers and ranchers to kill broadleaf plants and grasses, as well as to rapidly ripen certain crops. A recent study about glyphosate use showed it can be found in more than 750 different products, and is used in more than 130 countries on more than 100 different types of crops. Glyphosate is also the subject of hundreds of lawsuits around the globe based on research that exposure to glyphosate could cause chronic disease and cancers.

Also known as N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, glyphosate can be absorbed by the stems, leaves, or roots. It is an enzyme inhibitor, which prevents key stages of development in the plant, so the plant either dies, or rapidly matures until death. It is non-selective, so it will kill everything, unless the product is specifically genetically modified to resist it.


Open Letter from Diverse Women for Diversity to World Leaders

We, the women of the world, meeting together in Dehradun, India as the ¨Diverse of Women for Diversity¨, and representing 17 nationalities and multiple cultures, welcome and support the decision of the Mexican government through the presidential decree to phase out the use of GMOs and glyphosate.

We are outraged and dismayed that the Government of the United States is trying to pressure the government of Mexico to impose GMO transgenic Corn in violation of Mexico´s sovereignty and its sovereign rights enshrined in international agreements.

We as diverse women of the world working for protection of Biodiversity and resisting the imposition of GMOs which destroy our biodiversity and our food sovereignty support the Mexican government, condemn the bullying by United States and the biotechnology industry to force GMOs on Mexico and the world violating   the Convention of Biological Diversity and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety which enshrine sovereignty and the precautionary principle. We also ask the European Commission to stand by the decisions they have made under the precautionary principle.

We call on the government to:

  • Stop this strategy of pressuring the Government of Mexico to accept GMO corn. Mexico is the genetic reservoir of maize globally, which we must preserve.
  • Recognize and accept the policy decisions democratically adopted by a sovereign country
  • Acknowledge that the policies of Mexico are based on solid international scientific evidence demonstrating the harmful impacts of GMOs and glyphosate on human and environmental health.
  • Recognize that the biodiversity of maize in Mexico is essential to food sovereignty not only in Mexico, but globally. No GMO should be introduced in a country which is a centre of diversity.

We as diverse women were born as movement in the defense of biocultural diversity and resist GMOs everywhere since GMOs, pesticides and the industrial food system are the single biggest reason for the disappearance of biodiversity. We will continue our struggle in defense of life, diversity and freedom.

Carta abierta de Mujeres Diversas por la Diversidad a los líderes mundiales

Nosotras, las mujeres del mundo, reunidas en Dehradun, India como ¨Diversas Mujeres por la Diversidad¨, y representando 17 nacionalidades y múltiples culturas, damos la bienvenida y apoyamos la decisión del gobierno mexicano a través del decreto presidencial de eliminar gradualmente el uso de OGMs y glifosato.

Estamos indignadas y consternadas de que el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos esté tratando de presionar al gobierno de México para imponer el Maíz transgénico OGM en violación de la soberanía de México y sus derechos soberanos consagrados en los acuerdos internacionales.

Nosotras como mujeres diversas del mundo que trabajamos por la protección de la Biodiversidad y resistimos la imposición de OGMs que destruyen nuestra biodiversidad y nuestra soberanía alimentaria apoyamos al gobierno mexicano, condenamos la intimidación de Estados Unidos y de la industria biotecnológica para imponer los OGMs a México y al mundo violando el Convenio de Diversidad Biológica y el Protocolo de Cartagena sobre Bioseguridad que consagran la soberanía y el principio de precaución. También pedimos a la Comisión Europea que mantenga las decisiones que han tomado bajo el principio de precaución.

Pedimos al Gobierno lo siguiente:

– Detener esta estrategia de presionar al Gobierno de México para que acepte el maíz transgénico. México es el reservorio genético del maíz a nivel mundial, el cual debemos preservar.

– Reconocer y aceptar las decisiones políticas adoptadas democráticamente por un país soberano.

– Reconocer que las políticas de México se basan en sólidas evidencias científicas internacionales que demuestran los impactos nocivos de los transgénicos y el glifosato en la salud humana y ambiental.

– Reconocer que la biodiversidad del maíz en México es esencial para la soberanía alimentaria no sólo en México, sino a nivel mundial. Ningún transgénico debe ser introducido en un país que es centro de diversidad.

Nosotras como mujeres diversas nacimos como movimiento en defensa de la diversidad biocultural y nos resistimos a los transgénicos en todo el mundo, ya que los transgénicos, los pesticidas y el sistema alimentario industrial son la principal razón de la desaparición de la biodiversidad. Continuaremos nuestra lucha en defensa de la vida, la diversidad y la libertad.

8 de marzo de 2023. Dehradun, India

Oficina de Prensa de Navdanya International

Nuevo reto a EEUU: México prohíbe maíz transgénico para alimento humano

El Gobierno Federal Mexicano emite nuevas disposiciones para prohibir el uso de maíz transgénico y glifosato.

El Gobierno Mexicano emitió y publicó un nuevo decreto presidencial para revocar y no dar más autorizaciones para el uso de maíz genéticamente modificado, específicamente en productos destinados a la alimentación humana, así como el uso del herbicida glifosato, con una transición gradual. Esto ante presiones sobre la primera disposición al respecto emitida en el 2020.

Mercedes López, directora de la Asociación de Consumidores Orgánicos platicó acerca de la lucha que se está realizando para prohibir el uso de maíz transgénico en México.

México tenía hasta el 14 de febrero para responder a la exigencia desde el Gobierno de Estados Unidos sobre una explicación científica que sustente el decreto presidencial sobre las prohibiciones previstas al maíz transgénico y al glifosato. La respuesta desde la Secretaría de Economía fue emitida en un comunicado con los detalles del nuevo decreto.



The Science-based Evidence to Ban Glyphosate and GMOs

The U.S. Bullies Mexico over its Sovereign Right to Ban Glyphosate and GMO Corn

Mexico announced that it was phasing out the use of glyphosate herbicides, the cultivation of GMO corn, and the import of GMO corn for human consumption and livestock feed by the end of 2024. The reasons for the decree given by Mexican president Andrés Manuel López Obrador are to protect the health of Mexico’s consumers and small-scale farmers, the environment, and the purity of Mexico’s native corn varieties.

The decree states, “With the objective of achieving self-sufficiency and food sovereignty, our country must be oriented towards establishing sustainable and culturally adequate agricultural production, through the use of agroecological practices and inputs that are safe for human health, the country’s biocultural diversity and the environment, as well as congruent with the agricultural traditions of Mexico.”

Bayer-Monsanto and Dow have since launched 43 lawsuits in Mexico attempting to overturn the presidential decree.

The GMO/pesticide cartels fearing that Mexico will set a precedent for other countries to enact similar restrictions, are puppeteering agencies and officials within the U.S. government to pressure Mexico to abandon its plans. This is not the first time the German-based Bayer-Monsanto has used its captured U.S. government officials and agencies to act on its behalf. In 2019, the corporation succeeded in using U.S. officials to pressure Thailand into reversing its ban on glyphosate.

According to Reuters, the new U.S. agriculture trade chief, Doug McKalip, has given Mexico until February 14 to respond to the U.S. demand to justify the science behind the ban on CMO corn and glyphosate.

“We want to make sure that they do the science, show their work, and make decisions based upon risk assessments,” McKalip said.

This paper shows that it is the U.S. Government that has ignored an extensive body of science showing why GMOs and glyphosate should be banned.

The Scientific Evidence Justifying Mexico Ban on GMOs and Glyphosate

There are an enormous number of published scientific studies showing that GMOs and their associated pesticides a responsible for multiple serious health problems for people, animals, and the wider environment.

The widespread adoption of GMO crops in the U.S. has resulted in a massive increase in the application of glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup, as the primary method of weed control.

The above graph shows that the use of glyphosate, the active ingredient of Roundup, rocketed upwards in the late 1990s when Roundup-ready GMO crops were introduced.

The Credible Peer-reviewed Lifetime of Study of GMOs and Roundup

 The image above is of a rat with large mammary tumors due to consuming glyphosate at the usual levels found in food. The tumors on the right-hand side, starting from the top, result from just eating GMO corn,  GMO corn with Roundup, and just Roundup. Source: Séralini et al.

 Séralini et al. is the only credible, independent, non-industry funded, peer-reviewed lifetime feeding study of GMOs and Roundup. It found mammary and other tumors, liver and kidney damage resulting from regular exposure to minute amounts of  Roundup or a diet containing GMO corn or both – similar to the typical exposures people get from food.

All the female rats in the study that were fed GMOs or Roundup or both (Treated Group) developed mammary tumors and died earlier than those fed non-GMO food without Roundup (Control Group), except for one rat who died early of an ovarian tumor.

 Treated males had four times the number of tumors that were large enough to be felt by hand than the controls, and these occurred up to six hundred days earlier.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer

The International Agency for Research on Cancer reviewed numerous scientific studies.  It gave glyphosate the second-highest rating for Cancer – Group 2A

This means it causes animal cancer and has some evidence of cancer in humans, most notably non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

A study conducted by Flower et al. examined the levels of cancer in the children of people who sprayed glyphosate for weed control. They found that their children had increased levels of all childhood cancers, including all lymphomas such as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

A case-controlled study by Swedish scientists Lennart Hardell and Mikael Eriksson also linked non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma to exposure to various pesticides and herbicides, including glyphosate. The link between glyphosate and non-Hodgkin lymphoma has resulted in major court cases, most of which Bayer-Monsanto has lost. Millions of dollars were awarded to the victims.

Genetically Engineered Crops, Glyphosate, and the Deterioration of Health in the United States of America

Dr. Nancy Swanson, myself, and co-authors Jon Abrahamson and Bradley Wallet published a peer-reviewed paper, “Genetically engineered crops, glyphosate and the deterioration of health in the United States of America,” showing how glyphosate and GMOs are linked to over 20 chronic diseases in the U.S. In the study, U.S. government databases were searched for genetically engineered crop data, glyphosate application data, and disease epidemiological data. This was correlated and showed numerous diseases linked to the increased use of glyphosate and GMOs. A standard accepted statistical analysis showed that the odds of glyphosate and GMOs not being the cause of these diseases was 10,000 to 1. On top of these, numerous studies are confirming the link between GMOs and glyphosate with these diseases.

We compiled this data into graphs showing the increase in diseases, glyphosate, and GMOs. We also added trend lines in green to show that these diseases are increasing since the increased use of genetically engineered (GE) corn and soy, and glyphosate.

The graphs below show an increase in cancers.

Autism and Dementia

Autism and dementia have reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. The graphs below clearly show the link between the massive increase in the use of glyphosate and GMOs since the 1990s and the rapid increase in these diseases.

Nerve Cell Damage

Researchers have proven that exposure to minute amounts of glyphosate damages developing nerve cells.

The image above, from Coullery et al., illustrates how glyphosate damages nerve development. The glyphosate-exposed cells had shorter and unbranched axons, (the long extended ‘arms’ of the nerve) and less complex dendritic arbors (the smaller ‘fingers’ coming out of the body of the cell). It is clear from the image that the cells exposed to glyphosate do not develop properly and, therefore, cannot work effectively.

The scientists identified the cause by which glyphosate affects nerve development and stated that it cannot be reversed. The major concern is that the brain is the largest collection of nerves in the human body and is still developing in unborn, newborn, and growing children. Exposure to small amounts of glyphosate in food can adversely affect the brain’s normal development, leading to the suite of major issues that we see in children, such as autism spectrum, bipolar spectrum, ADHD, and other developmental and behavioral issues.

Adult brains are constantly renewing brain cells. These nerve cells are also adversely affected by glyphosate. The graph above shows a strong link between the increase in glyphosate and deaths from dementia.

Endocrine Disruption – Disruption to Hormones

Gasnier et al. reported endocrine-disrupting actions of glyphosate at 0.5 ppm. According to the authors, this is “800 times lower than the level authorized in some food or feed (400 ppm, USEPA, 1998).”

Professor Séralini’s study published in Environmental Sciences Europe found that both GM maize and Roundup act as endocrine disrupters, and their consumption resulted in female rats dying at a rate two to three times higher than the control animals. The pituitary gland was the second most disabled organ and the sex hormonal balance was modified in females fed with the GMO and Roundup treatments.

Disruption of Metabolic Pathways

One of the most significant studies was published by Samsel and Seneff in the peer-reviewed scientific journal Entropy in 2013. This comprehensive review, titled “Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases,” showed how glyphosate disrupted numerous biochemical pathways within the human body, including gut microorganisms, and consequently could lead to numerous diseases.

Studies show that disruptions of the hormone and metabolic pathways are major causes of obesity, in that they disrupt the normal control mechanisms that regulate overeating, sugar levels, and body fat metabolism. Science clearly shows that glyphosate is one of the chemicals that cause these disruptions.


The rise in diabetes is directly linked to obesity. Most obese people end up with diabetes due to overloading the hormonal mechanisms that regulate blood sugar. Over time they begin to fail, resulting in dangerous increases in blood sugar.

Disruption of the Gut Microbiome

Samsel and Seneff’s paper identified how glyphosate disrupted the gut microbiome, causing the suppression of biosynthesis of cytochrome P450 enzymes and key amino acids. In a later paper, “Glyphosate, Pathways to Modern Diseases II: Celiac Sprue and Gluten Intolerance,” Samsel and Seneff showed that the current increase in celiac disease and gluten intolerance in people was linked to glyphosate’s adverse effects on the gut microbiome. They highlighted that glyphosate is patented as a biocide, and consequently, it kills the beneficial gut bacteria, leading to a rise in intestinal diseases.

Krüger et al. showed that glyphosate affects the microbiome of horses and cows. Shehata et al. found the same effects in poultry; the researchers state, “Highly pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella Entritidis, Salmonella Gallinarum, Salmonella Typhimurium, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum are highly resistant to glyphosate. However, most of the beneficial bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus badius, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Lactobacillus spp. were found to be moderate to highly susceptible.” Both groups of researchers postulated that glyphosate is associated with the increase in botulism-mediated diseases in these domestic farm animals.

Inflammatory bowel diseases are rising along with deaths from intestinal infections. Glyphosate’s disruption of the gut microbiome must be seen as a significant cause.

Kidney and Liver Disease

The growth in kidney and liver diseases is a major chronic illness epidemic. The graph below clearly shows the relationship between GMOs, glyphosate, and the rapid increase in deaths from kidney disease in the U.S. Deaths from kidney disease fell until the widespread increase of glyphosate and GMOs.

In the lifetime feeding study of rats conducted by Séralini et al. the treated males displayed liver congestions and necrosis at rates 2.5 to 5.5 times higher than the controls, as well as marked and severe kidney damage at rates generally 1.3 to 2.3 greater than the controls.

The image above shows kidneys and livers that have been damaged by Roundup (glyphosate), GMO corn, and both. In a later published study designed to understand why Roundup and glyphosate-based herbicides caused kidney and liver damage in rats, scientists discovered that ultra-low doses of these herbicides disrupted the functions of numerous genes, which resulted in changes consistent with multiple kidney and liver disease problems.

The researchers stated, “Our results suggest that chronic exposure to a GBH (glyphosate-based herbicides) in an established laboratory animal toxicity model system at an ultra-low, environmental dose can result in liver and kidney damage with potential significant health implications for animal and human populations.”


Science shows that GMOs and glyphosate cause multiple serious chronic diseases in the United States. Instead of bullying Mexico to accept these dangerous products, the U.S. regulatory authorities should do their jobs to protect the American people from the harm they cause by banning them.

¿Cuándo la prohibición de transgénicos y glifosato?

Piden a Presidencia y a Semarnat estatus del Decreto Presidencial 

Ciudad de México, 15 de octubre de 2020.- En el marco del Día Mundial de la Alimentación que se celebra el 16 de octubre,  Greenpeace México y la Campaña Nacional Sin Maíz no hay País, hacen un llamado urgente al presidente de la República, Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO), a emitir el Decreto Presidencial que prohíbe la presencia de transgénicos y glifosato en nuestro país, a fin de  avanzar hacia una producción agroecológica que garantice tanto la autosuficiencia y soberanía alimentaria, como los derechos humanos de las mexicanas y los mexicanos a una alimentación saludable, local, diversa, natural, culturalmente adecuada, que nos permita preservar la herencia ancestral de los pueblos originarios en torno al maíz y otros cultivos.

Es tiempo de saldar la deuda histórica con la diversidad de semillas nativas en México. Por eso, es urgente  la prohibición inmediata de los transgénicos y la prohibición progresiva del glifosato para 2024.

En ese sentido, numerosas organizaciones, ciudadanos (as), científicos (as), campesinos (as), agricultores (as), investigadores (as), consumidores (as), académicos (as), artistas e intelectuales que han luchado por más de 21 años contra los transgénicos y el glifosato en México, pidieron a AMLO  honrar el compromiso que ha realizado públicamente de emitir un Decreto al respecto (1).

El llamado también va dirigido a la titular de la Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (Semarnat), María Luisa Albores, a quien a través de una misiva (2), las organizaciones de la sociedad civil en conjunto expresaron su preocupación por los efectos negativos en la salud y el medio ambiente, ocasionados por el modelo de producción industrial basado en la sobreexplotación de los recursos naturales, el uso de semillas genéticamente modificadas y el uso indiscriminado de agrotóxicos.

“Nos dirigimos a usted para consultar el estatus del Decreto Presidencial para la prohibición de los transgénicos y del glifosato, mencionado por el Dr. Víctor Manuel Toledo Manzur en su mensaje oficial de retiro de la Semarnat, del cual usted fue testigo. Las organizaciones firmantes (3) reiteramos la urgencia de la publicación del Decreto Presidencial para proteger la integridad de México como Centro de Origen del maíz y de numerosos cultivos, entre ellos el chile, el frijol, la calabaza, la vainilla, el algodón, el aguacate, el amaranto, el chayote, el cacao y el maguey. Estas especies de plantas son esenciales en el mundo y se tiene que buscar su conservación para que estén disponibles en el presente y para las futuras generaciones”, se señala en la carta.

Para enfatizar la urgencia de que se promulgue este Decreto, miembros de Greenpeace México y de la Campaña Nacional Sin Maíz no hay País estuvieron en Yautepec, Morelos donde desplegaron la imagen del Dios del Maíz sobre un campo de milpas y la leyenda “Por la soberanía alimentaria #MéxicoSinTrangénicos” 

Este Día de la Alimentación se celebra la diversidad de alimentos que tenemos, la diversidad de platillos y la cultura y tradiciones que gira en torno a ellos, pero también es una  oportunidad para hacer una alerta respecto a que la alimentación, tal como es la práctica común, con grandes cantidades de productos ultraprocesados y la forma en que estos se producen, está teniendo efectos negativos en el ambiente y contribuyendo al cambio climático.

Greenpeace México y la Campaña Nacional Sin Maíz no hay País consideramos que el presidente Andrés Manuel López Obrador, tiene la oportunidad de cumplir con sus compromisos de campaña y promulgar dicho Decreto, que protege los derechos humanos a la alimentación, al medio ambiente sano, a la salud y a la biodiversidad, entre otros, de las comunidades campesinas, indígenas, consumidoras y, en general, de todas las personas.

Es momento de aprender a producir lo que necesitamos de manera que se pueda preservar la naturaleza y los servicios ecosistémicos que ésta nos brinda, para las futuras generaciones.

1.- El 12 de agosto de 2020 durante la conferencia de prensa matutina el primer mandatario reiteró el compromiso de que no habrá en México organismos genéticamente modificados (OGMs)
2.- Carta completa dirigida a la titular de Semarnat, María Luisa Albores disponible en https://storage.googleapis.com/planet4-mexico-stateless/2020/10/28a8081b-carta-ma.-luisa-albores_decreto-.pdf
3.- 90 firmas de organizaciones, colectivos, investigadorxs y personas fisicas. Para consultar la lista completa https://storage.googleapis.com/planet4-mexico-stateless/2020/10/28a8081b-carta-ma.-luisa-albores_decreto-.pdf
Publicado con permiso de Greenpeace México